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Torque
Torque is a term that describes physical effect on any object with mass that changes its rotational speed or its shape. Torque caused by force acting at a distance from the body and causes a rotary motion. Torque is a vector meaning it has a magnitude and direction. Torque is marked with the symbol .
Torque magnitude is described in units such as Nm (Newtonmeter), Kilogramforcemeter, and more.
Torque Direction is always perpendicular to the acting forces plane. The direction of the torque can be found using the right hand rule.
Torque Principals
In the example image below, the wrench is pulled with a force. The wrench grabs the nut that closes the screw. Since the force is exerted in a distance from the rotation axis, a torque is exerted on the nut.
It is possible to increase the torque exerted on a body by one of two ways:

Increasing the force (hand A exerts a greater force but in smaller distance)

Increasing the distance (hand B exerts a smaller force but in greater distance)
The next video shows the effect of torque:
On the bigger gear a force is always exerted downwards. Since the force acting with a distance to the rotation axis (the gear radius), a torque is exerted on the rotational axis of the gear and making him spin.
The formula for calculating the torque is:
 Torque Magnitude on the body
 Force exerted on the body
 The distance vector between the rotation axis and the point where the force exerted
 Angle between the force vector and the distance vector
Bending Torque/Moment
Bending torque is torque caused by bending and tensile forces acting on the body. Bending Moment expresses positive or negative bending direction.
The following Image shows a bending torque exerted on a beam. The torque caused by the forces exerted on the beam. The “+” sign represent a tensile stresses and the ““sign represent compression stresses on the beam.
Torsion Moment
Torsion Moment is a caused by two torques equal in size but in opposite direction. The torsion makes the body twist around a rotational axis common to the torques.
Written by Eran Cenciper (RobotandMachinesDesign Webmaster)
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